The Farm Bill expired on October 1, meaning a potential rise in prices.
The bill managed food stamps, regulated crop insurance, and helped give farmers a cash buffer.
Without it, the cost of maintaining their livestock could eat farmer's profits.
The Farm Bureau said consumers will face the impact of the higher costs in January.
One New York agricultural representative said the price of milk might double to $6 per gallon.
Other milk-dependent foods like cheese and butter will also be impacted.