WASHINGTON (AP) — Genetically manipulated food remains generally safe for humans and the environment, a high-powered science advisory board declared in a report Tuesday.
The National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine concluded that tinkering with the genetics of what we eat doesn't produce the "Frankenfood" monster some opponents claim — but it isn't feeding the world with substantially increased yields, as proponents promised.
With the line between engineered and natural foods blurring thanks to newer techniques such as gene editing, the 408-page report said, regulators need to make their safety focus more on the end-product of the food that's made rather than the nuts and bolts of how it's made.
The report waltzed a bit around the hot political issue of whether genetically modified food should be labeled. The study's authors said labels aren't needed for food safety reasons but potentially could be justified because of transparency, social and cultural factors, somewhat similar to made-in-America stickers. That stance was praised by some environmental and consumer groups, but criticized by some scientists as unnecessary because the food poses no unique risks.
There's no evidence of environmental problems caused by genetically modified crops, but pesticide resistance is a problem, the report said. Farms that use genetically modified crops in general are helped, but it may be a different story for smaller farmers and in poorer areas of the world, it said.
Most of the modified plants are soybean, cotton, corn and canola; in most cases, genetic tinkering has made them resistant to certain herbicides and insects. When farms switched from conventional crops to the engineered varieties, there was no substantial change in the yield compared to non-engineered food. Production in general is increasing in agriculture, but U.S. Department of Agriculture data don't show that genetically engineered crops are increasing at a higher rate, despite experimental results suggest that they should, the report said.
"Farmers in general are gaining," with less pesticide use and a bit higher yield, academy committee chairman Fred Gould said at a Tuesday news conference.
The nuanced report first said it is important not to make sweeping statements on genetically engineered foods, which it called GE. Still, "the committee concluded that no differences have been found that implicate a higher risk to human health safety from these GE foods than from their non-GE counterparts."
The National Academy, established by President Abraham Lincoln to provide scientific advice, has issued reports before saying it could find no safety problem with eating genetically modified food. But the academy committee chairman Fred Gould of North Carolina State University said this report is different because his study team started by listening to critics of such foods and examined anew more than 1,000 studies.
"To some extent we know more about some genetically engineered food than we do about other food," committee member Dominique Brossard of the University of Wisconsin said. "There are limits to what can be known about any food. That's something we're not used to hearing as consumers."
Many scientists who work on the issue but weren't part of the study team lauded the report as sensible, but not surprising.
Mark Sorrells at Cornell called it "very well balanced, accurate, and reiterates much of what has already been published many times."
"Science is science, facts are facts," emailed Bruce Chassy, an emeritus professor of biochemistry and food science at the University of Illinois. "There's just no sound basis for their opposition just as there was never any scientific basis to believe GM plants should be viewed any differently than any other,"
One dissenter was Charles Benbrook, who used to be at Washington State University but is now a private consultant. He said he feels the risks of genetically engineered food are more serious than more mainstream scientists do, and that the human health assessments aren't ample enough.
Some groups critical of genetically engineering foods criticized the report before it came out. Food & Water Watch criticized the National Academy as taking funding from biotechnology firms and using "pro-GMO scientists" to write its reports. The report was funded by the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the New Venture Fund, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the academy itself — none of which have direct connections to the agricultural biotechnology industry. It was peer reviewed by outside experts and committee members are vetted for financial conflicts of interests, said academy spokesman William Kearney.
Unlike many scientists, Marion Nestle of New York University, who was a reviewer but not author of the report, said "the report reveals how little is known about the effects of GE foods." She said if the people behind the report wanted to end the polarization over these foods, "this won't do the trick."
1. INTRODUCTION AND ACCEPTANCE
Scripps Media, Inc., and its affiliated websites (“Company,” “us,” “we,” or “our”) provide online services, including, without limitation, websites, applications, platforms, and other electronic services (collectively, the “Services”).
2. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
3. SERVICES ACCESS AND USE
UNAUTHORIZED USE, COPYING, REPRODUCTION, MODIFICATION, PUBLICATION, REPUBLICATION, UPLOADING, FRAMING, DOWNLOADING, POSTING, TRANSMITTING, DISTRIBUTING, DUPLICATING OR ANY OTHER MISUSE OF ANY OF THE MATERIAL IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED.
(i) remove, alter, cover, or distort any copyright, trademark, or other proprietary rights notice on the Services or Service Content;
(ii) circumvent, disable or otherwise interfere with security-related features of the Services including, without limitation, any features that prevent or restrict use or copying of any content or enforce limitations on the use of the Services or Service Content;
(iii) use an automatic device (such as a robot or spider) or manual process to copy or “scrape” the Services or Service Content for any purpose without our express written permission. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we grant public search engine operators permission to use automatic devices (such as robots or spiders) to copy Service Content from the Services for the sole purpose of creating (and only to the extent necessary to create) a searchable index of Service Content that is available to the public. We reserve the right to revoke this permission (generally or specifically) at any time;
(iv) collect or harvest any (including through the use of automated means such as harvesting bots, robots, spiders, scrapers, etc.) personally identifiable information from the Services including, without limitation, user names, passwords, or email addresses;
(v) solicit other users to join or become members of any commercial online service or other organization without our prior written approval;
(vi) attempt to or interfere with the proper working of the Services or impair, overburden, or disable the same;
(vii) decompile, reverse engineer, or disassemble any portion of any the Services;
(viii) use network-monitoring software to determine the architecture of or extract usage data from the Services;
(ix) encourage, or engage in, conduct that violates any local, state or federal law, either civil or criminal, or impersonate another user, person, or entity (e.g., using another person’s Membership (as defined below) without permission);
(x) violate U.S. export laws, including, without limitation, violations of the Export Administration Act and the Export Administration Regulations administered by the Department of Commerce; or
(xi) engage in any conduct that restricts or inhibits any other user, person or entity from using or enjoying the Services, including without limitation, harassing, stalking or otherwise abusing another user, or transmitting or otherwise making available any content that is false, harmful, threatening, disparaging, vulgar, obscene or is otherwise objectionable (as determined by Company in its sole discretion).
4. USER REGISTRATION
(A) In order to access or use some features of the Services, you may have to become a registered user. If you are under the age of thirteen, then you are not permitted to register as a user or otherwise submit personal information.
(B) If you become a registered user, you will provide true, accurate and complete registration information and, if such information changes, you will promptly update the relevant registration information. During registration, you will create a user name and password (a “Membership”), which may permit you access to certain areas of the Services not available to non-registered users. You are responsible for safeguarding and maintaining the confidentiality of your Membership. You are solely responsible for the activity that occurs under your Membership, whether or not you have authorized the activity. You agree to notify us immediately at insert email address of any breach of security or unauthorized use of your Membership.
5. USER CONTENT
(A) We may now or in the future permit users to post, upload, transmit through, or otherwise make available on the Services (collectively, “submit”) messages, text, illustrations, files, images, graphics, photos, comments, sounds, music, videos, information, content, and/or other materials (“User Content”) through forums, bulletin boards, chat rooms or other interactive areas that may be offered on the Service. Subject to the rights and license you grant herein, you retain all right, title and interest in your User Content. We do not guarantee any confidentiality with respect to User Content even if it is not published on the Services. It is solely your responsibility to monitor and protect any intellectual property rights that you may have in your User Content, and we do not accept any responsibility for the same.
(B) You shall not submit any User Content protected by copyright, trademark, patent, trade secret, moral right, or other intellectual property or proprietary right without the express permission of the owner of the respective right. You are solely liable for any damage resulting from your failure to obtain such permission or from any other harm resulting from User Content that you submit.
(C) You will not submit any User Content that:
(i) violates or infringes in any way upon the rights of others, including, but not limited to, any copyright, trademark, patent, trade secret, moral right, or other intellectual property or proprietary right of any person or entity;
(ii) impersonates another or is unlawful, threatening, abusive, libelous, defamatory, invasive of privacy or publicity rights, vulgar, obscene, profane, pornographic, or otherwise objectionable;
(iii) encourages conduct that would constitute a criminal offense, give rise to civil liability or otherwise violate any law;
(iv) is an advertisement for goods or services or a solicitation of funds;
(v) includes personal information such as messages which identify phone numbers, social security numbers, account numbers, addresses, or employer references;
(vi) contains a formula, instruction, or advice that could cause harm or injury;
(vii) is a chain letter of any kind; or
(viii) is excessively repetitive or otherwise an attempt to circumvent character limits.
Moreover, any conduct by a user that in our sole discretion restricts or inhibits any other user from using or enjoying the Services will not be permitted.
(E) By submitting User Content, you also grant us the right, but not the obligation to use your biographical information including, without limitation, your name and geographical location in connection with broadcast, print, online, or other use or publication of your User Content. Notwithstanding the foregoing, you waive any and all claims you may now or later have in any jurisdiction to so-called “moral rights” or rights of “droit moral” with respect to the User Content.
(F) We reserve the right to display advertisements in connection with your User Content and to use your User Content for advertising and promotional purposes. You acknowledge and agree that your User Content may be included on the websites and advertising networks of our distribution partners and third-party service providers (including their downstream users).
(G) We have the right, but not the obligation, to monitor User Content. We have the right in our sole discretion and for any reason whatsoever to edit, refuse to post, remove, or disable access to any User Content.
(H) We do not control or endorse any User Content and specifically disclaim any responsibility or liability to any person or entity (including, without limitation, persons who may use or rely on such material) for any loss, damage (whether actual, consequential, punitive or otherwise), injury, claim, liability or other cause of any kind or character based upon or resulting from any User Content. User Forums are by design public, and you understand that the uploading to and/or posting of User Content any information to the User Forums shall not be subject to any obligation of confidence on our part, and we shall not be liable for any use or disclosure of the User Content posted. You are fully and solely responsible for your User Content. You understand that any User Content you post must be owned and/or created by you or you must have permission to upload, post, transmit, or share.
6. SERVICE CONTENT & THIRD-PARTY LINKS
(A) We provide the Services including, without limitation, Service Content for educational, informational, entertainment and promotional purposes only. By accessing or linking to the Services, you assume the risk that the information on the Services may be incomplete, inaccurate, out of date, or may not meet your needs and requirements. You may not rely on any information and opinions expressed on any of our Services for any other purpose. In all instances, it is your responsibility to evaluate the accuracy, timeliness, completeness, or usefulness of Service Content. Under no circumstances will we be liable for any loss or damage caused by your reliance on any Service Content.
(B) In many instances, Service Content will include content posted by a third-party or will represent the opinions and judgments of a third-party. We do not endorse, warrant and are not responsible for the accuracy, timeliness, completeness, or reliability of any opinion, advice, or statement made on the Services by anyone other than authorized employees or spokespersons while acting in their official capacities.
(C) Any health-related information that may be posted is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. We do not endorse or warrant the validity of any such health-related statements found on the Services or in any third-party sites referenced in the Services. This information should be treated as general in nature which may be helpful to some persons but not others, depending upon their personal medical needs. You should always consult with your physician prior to changing or undertaking a new diet or exercise program. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on the Services.
(D) If there is a dispute between persons accessing the Services or between persons accessing the Services and any third party, you understand and agree that we are under no obligation to become involved. If there is such a dispute, you hereby release Company and its officers, directors, employees, parents, partners, successors, agents, affiliates, subsidiaries, and their related companies from claims, demands, and damages of every kind or nature arising out of, relating to, or in any way connected with such dispute.
(F) We may also display advertisements for the goods and services of a third party on the Services, including in connection with co-promotions, sponsorships and other similar partnership arrangements. We do not endorse or represent and is not responsible for the safety, quality, accuracy, reliability, integrity or legality of any such goods or services advertised, promoted or displayed on the Services. We will not be a party to or in any way responsible for monitoring any transaction between you and any third-party.
7. PHONE CALLS AND MOBILE MESSAGES; AUTOMATIC-RENEWAL TERMS
(A) You may subscribe for certain Services for us to call or send you text messages (such as for notice of weather-related conditions) (the “Communication Services”). By subscribing for any such Communication Service, you represent and warrant that you are the lawful owner of the phone or device that will receive the call or text message. If your contact information changes, you will immediately notify us of your new contact information.
(B) The Communication Services may not be available at all times and in all areas. Neither Company nor its affiliates are responsible for phone calls or text messages that you do not receive for any reason.
(C) You acknowledge we may call you or send you a text message at any time as part of the Communication Services and there is neither a minimum nor a maximum number of calls or text messages you may receive as part of the Communication Services and the frequency may vary depending on your settings. You consent to us calling or sending you text messages as part of the Communication Services.
(D) Standard call and message rates may apply from your mobile or wireless device carrier for calls or text messages you receive, notwithstanding any payment you may make to Company for the Communication Services.
(E) You may cancel the Communication Services at any time through the process described for any such Communication Services, but Company will not refund any portion of previously-paid subscription fees. Company will provide you with the Communication Services during the initial term described at the time of purchase for such Communication Service and, until you cancel such Service, for subsequent renewal terms equal to the period of the initial term.
(F) COMMUNICATION SERVICES AUTOMATICALLY RENEW AND WE WILL CONTINUE TO PROVIDE THEM UNTIL YOU CANCEL SUCH SERVICES. YOU HEREBY AUTHORIZE COMPANY TO CHARGE THE CREDIT CARD THAT YOU HAVE PROVIDED FOR THE COMMUNICATION SERVICES FOR THE INITIAL TERM OF THE COMMUNICATION SERVICES AND ANY RENEWAL TERMS. THE COMMUNICATION SERVICES WILL AUTOMATICALLY RENEW FOR THE PERIODS SET FORTH AT THE TIME OF PURCHASE (E.G., MONTHLY OR ANNUALLY). YOU MAY CANCEL THE COMMUNICATION SERVICES AT ANY TIME BY CONTACTING US AT Insert email address WITH THE SUBJECT “CANCELLATION REQUEST.” THERE WILL BE RECURRING CHARGES IN THE AMOUNT INITIALLY SET FORTH AT THE TIME OF PURCHASE, BUT SUCH AMOUNT MAY CHANGE IN THE FUTURE. THE MINIMUM PURCHASE OBLIGATION IS THE PRICE OF THE COMMUNICATION SERVICES. IF THERE IS A MATERIAL CHANGE TO THE AUTOMATIC-RENEWAL TERMS, COMPANY WILL NOTIFY YOU OF THE CHANGE AND PROVIDE YOU WITH DETAILS ABOUT CANCELLING THE COMMUNICATION SERVICES.
(A) YOU EXPRESSLY AGREE THAT USE OF THE SERVICES IS AT YOUR SOLE RISK. THE SERVICES AND SERVICE CONTENT ARE PROVIDED ON AN “AS IS” AND “AS AVAILABLE” BASIS WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. WITHOUT LIMITING THE FOREGOING AND TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, COMPANY AND ITS OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, EMPLOYEES, PARENTS, PARTNERS, SUCCESSORS, AGENTS, DISTRIBUTION PARTNERS, AFFILIATES, SUBSIDIARIES, AND THEIR RELATED COMPANIES DISCLAIM ANY AND ALL WARRANTIES INCLUDING ANY: (I) WARRANTIES THAT THE SERVICES WILL MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS; (II) WARRANTIES CONCERNING THE AVAILABILITY, ACCURACY, SECURITY, USEFULNESS, TIMELINESS, OR INFORMATIONAL CONTENT OF THE SERVICES OR SERVICE CONTENT; (III) WARRANTIES OF TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE; (IV) WARRANTIES FOR SERVICES OR GOODS RECEIVED THROUGH OR ADVERTISED ON OUR SERVICES OR ACCESSED THROUGH THE SERVICES; (V) WARRANTIES CONCERNING THE ACCURACY OR RELIABILITY OF THE RESULTS THAT MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE USE OF THE SERVICES; (VI) WARRANTIES THAT YOUR USE OF THE SERVICES WILL BE SECURE OR UNINTERRUPTED; AND (VII) WARRANTIES THAT ERRORS IN THE SERVICES WILL BE CORRECTED.
(B) CONSULT WITH YOUR BROKER OR OTHER FINANCIAL REPRESENTATIVE TO VERIFY PRICING OR OTHER INFORMATION PROVIDED ON OR THROUGH THE SERVICES PRIOR TO EXECUTING A STOCK TRADE OR MAKING OTHER FINANCIAL DECISIONS. NEITHER COMPANY NOR ITS INFORMATION/CONTENT PROVIDERS SHALL HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR INVESTMENT DECISIONS BASED ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED OR ACCESSIBLE VIA THE SERVICES.
10. LIMITATION ON LIABILITY
(C) In some jurisdictions limitations of liability are not permitted. In such jurisdictions, some of the foregoing limitations may not apply to you. These limitations shall apply to the fullest extent permitted by law.
12. COPYRIGHT POLICY
(A) We respect the intellectual property rights of others and expect users to do the same. In appropriate circumstances and at our sole discretion, we may terminate and/or disable the Membership of users suspected to be infringing the copyrights (or other intellectual property rights) of others. Additionally, in appropriate circumstances and in our sole discretion, we may remove or disable access to material on the Services that may be infringing or the subject of infringing activity.
(B) In accordance with the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, Title 17 of the United States Code, Section 512 (“DMCA”), we will respond promptly to claims of copyright infringement that are reported to the agent that we have designated to receive notifications of claims infringement (its “Designated Agent”). Our Designated Agent is:
David M. Giles, Deputy General Counsel; The E.W. Scripps Company; 312 Walnut Street, Suite 2800, Cincinnati, OH 45202; (513) 977-3000; email@example.com.
(C) If you are a copyright owner (or authorized to act on behalf of the copyright owner) and believe that your work’s copyright has been infringed, please report your notice of infringement to us by providing our Designated Agent with a written notification of claimed infringement that includes substantially the following:
(i) A physical or electronic signature of a person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed.
(ii) Identification of the copyrighted work claimed to have been infringed, or, if multiple copyrighted works at a single online site are covered by a single notification, a representative list of such works at that site.
(iii) Identification of the material that is claimed to be infringing or to be the subject of infringing activity and that is to be removed or access to which is to be disabled, and information reasonably sufficient to permit us to locate the material.
(iv) Information reasonably sufficient to permit us to contact you, such as an address, telephone number, and, if available, an electronic mail address at which you may be contacted.
(v) A statement that you have a good faith belief that use of the material in the manner complained of is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law.
(vi) A statement that the information in the notification is accurate, and under penalty of perjury, that you are authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed.
We will investigate notices of copyright infringement and take appropriate actions under the DMCA. Inquiries that do not follow this procedure may not receive a response.
13. CHOICE OF LAW; JURISDICTION AND VENUE
14. DISPUTE RESOLUTION
(A) Each party agrees to first contact the other with any disputes and provide a written description of the problem, all relevant documents/information and the proposed resolution. You agree to contact us with disputes by sending notice to: Insert name and address. We will contact you based on the contact information you have provided us.
(B) If after 30 days the parties are unable to resolve any dispute raised under the previous provision, the dispute may be submitted to arbitration consistent with this Section. The parties understand that they would have had a right or opportunity to litigate disputes through a court and to have a judge or jury decide their case, but they choose to have any disputes resolved through arbitration.
(C) Each party agrees that any claim or dispute between such parties, and any claim by either party against any agent, employee, successor, or assign of the other, including, to the full extent permitted by applicable law, third parties who are not signatories to this agreement, whether related to this agreement or otherwise, including past, present, and future claims and disputes, and including any dispute as to the validity or applicability of this arbitration clause, shall be resolved by binding arbitration administered by the JAMS under its rules and procedures in effect when the claim is filed. The rules and procedures and other information, including information on fees, may be obtained from JAMS’ website (www.jamsadr.com) or by calling JAMS at 949-224-1810.
(D) Each party is entering into this arbitration agreement in connection with a transaction involving interstate commerce. Accordingly, this arbitration agreement and any resulting proceedings shall be governed by the Federal Arbitration Act (“FAA”), 9 U.S.C. §§ 1-16. Any award by the arbitrator(s) may be entered as a judgment in any court having jurisdiction.
(E) Exception to Arbitrate. Either party may bring qualifying claims in small claims court. Further, pursuant to the “NO CLASS ACTIONS” section below, each party agrees that any arbitration will be solely between you and Company, not as part of a classwide claim (i.e., not brought on behalf of or together with another individual’s claim). If for any reason any court or arbitrator holds that this NO CLASS ACTION restriction is unconscionable or unenforceable, then our agreement to arbitrate does not apply and the classwide dispute must be brought in court.
15. NO CLASS ACTIONS
TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY LAW, COMPANY AND YOU EACH WAIVE ANY RIGHT TO PURSUE DISPUTES ON A CLASSWIDE BASIS; THAT IS, TO EITHER JOIN A CLAIM WITH THE CLAIM OF ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY, OR ASSERT A CLAIM IN A REPRESENTATIVE CAPACITY ON BEHALF OF ANYONE ELSE IN ANY LAWSUIT, ARBITRATION OR OTHER PROCEEDING.
16. NO TRIAL BY JURY
TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY LAW, EACH PARTY WAIVES ANY RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LAWSUIT, ARBITRATION OR OTHER PROCEEDING.
17. AMENDMENT; ADDITIONAL TERMS
(A) No waiver by either party of any breach or default hereunder shall be deemed to be a waiver of any preceding or subsequent breach or default. The section headings used herein are for convenience only and shall not be given any legal import.
President Donald Trump said, "We cannot abide by an agreement if it provides cover for the eventual construction of a nuclear program."
The president warned if the U.S. must defend itself or its allies, it will have "no choice but to totally destroy North Korea."
Spain said its ambassador from North Korea must leave soon. Mexico, Kuwait and Peru recently did something similar.
The hurricane made landfall on the islands of Dominica and Guadeloupe late Monday.